Sunday, October 21, 2007

Electric Cars - Great Info Page!

wow! Great INFO:

Electric Vehicle Information from PESWiki

  • Tesla Motors Inc. Nears Launch of First Vehicle - Tesla Roadster is 100% electric, not hybrid. A high power, high efficiency inverter combined with a powerful AC induction motor and large lithium ion battery pack make it faster than most sports cars (0-60mph in under 4 seconds; it also has a 250+ mile range and is more than twice as efficient as a Toyota Prius (135 mpg equivalent energy usage, station-to-wheel). Major VC backed ($60 million) company debuted the car July 19, 2006 in Santa Monica.
  • Phoenix Motorcars electric cars - Phoenix Motorcars, headquartered in Ojai, California, is an early leader in the mass production of full function, freeway speed electric automobiles. Entertaining fleet orders for Sport Utility Trucks (SUT).
  • The Hydraulic Battery-powered Electromagneti Generator from Tennessee - A trio of inventors from Tennessee have design a hydraulic, battery, electromagnetic system than they say can fuellessly run a home or a vehicle, or other devices. Several working prototypes have been built. Presently awaiting "pending" patent status, they are ready to build a business to bring this technology to market.
  • ZENN Motor Company - A Canadian developer, manufacturer and supplier of electrically powered vehicles currently sells two models in the U.S. The ZENN is an affordable Neighborhood Electric Vehicle (NEV) with a regulated maximum speed of 25 mph and a range of 35 miles on a full charge. The vehicle can be recharged overnight from a standard electrical outlet.
  • Fuelless "Surge" Motor Technology - In around 1994, Troy Reed claimed to have a fuelless, pollution-free motor with around 7 kilowatts of output, powerful enough to run a house or a car. The technology received a flurry of high-level interest, including major media. Actor Dennis Weaver organized a cross-country demonstration. What happened to the technology?
  • Azeev Inc. - A startup company doing research for the production of Zero Emission Electric Vehicles is planned to be 100% electric, not hybrid. Both Two Wheel and Four wheel drive (in-wheel motors) is contemplated. Planned range is about 500 Miles per charge. Self-funded company debuted the prototype on September 20, 2006 in Edison, NJ.
  • Lightning Car electric cars - Lightning Car Company is planning on releasing a 700HP, electric sports car, called Lightning GT sometime in 2008. They estimate to deliver top speed of more than 130mph and accelerate from 0-60 in under four seconds.
  • Hybrid Bus: e-Traction Revolution on Wheel - Whisper™ buses in the Netherlands get 13.9 mpg by using a diesel engine with an electrical generator to produce electricity which runs electric motors that are directly connected to wheels.
  • Venturi Automobiles - Features three electric models, including the Eclectic -- an urban 3-seater electro-solar or wind vehicle is the first production energy-autonomous vehicle in history. Eclectic takes advantage of moments of immobilisation to store energy in its NiMH batteries. It offers a range up to 50 km at a speed of 50 km/hr and can also be recharged from the grid in 5 hours. Production of 20 vehicles has commenced and 200 will be launched in June 2007.
  • Axel Corporation's Hybrid Bike - Tokyo based Axle Corporation has introduced a new electric motorbike with a hybrid plug-in, electromagnetic-permanent magnet motor, and is seven times more cost-efficient than scooters running on petrol.

Electric Scooters, Motorbikes and Bicycles

  • Directory: Electric Scooters (Separate Page) - There is great alternative to city commuting -- electric scooters. The cost to travel 10-20 miles is well below $0.2 as opposed to $2 on city bus (NYC). Scooters require less mass to be moved, and hence can be far more economical.

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Electric Cars

  • Directory: Electric Cars (separate page) - Put solar PV panels on the roof of your garage or carport and "fill up" at home for free. These cars are designed for short range daily commuting, not highway use.

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Electric Trucks and Utility Vehicles

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Solar Vehicles

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Electric Boats

  • transatlantic21 ( - "sun21" is a 14-meter-long electric catamaran powered exclusively by solar energy that will undertake the first motorized crossing of the Atlantic without using a drop of gasoline. It will leave Spain the end of November 2006 and is due to arrive in New York in May 2007.
  • Solar-powered 42-passenger boat ( - The SolarShuttle solar powered electric boat, designed by SolarLab (, is entirely pollution-free and silent running. It can carry 42 passengers in all daylight conditions, has reserve power for night-time running and even generates surplus energy that can be fed back into the national grid. (Gizmag; Mar. 17, 2007)

  • Lear Baylor ( - The Lear 204 electric boat cruises waterways silently without the environmental impact of sooty exhaust, irritating noise, or large wakes to spoil the moment. It is safe, stable, and simple to operate, with almost no maintenance and operational costs are only a dollar a day.

  • MW-Line ( - The Aquabus 1050 electrosolar boat can transport 24 passengers on lakes and rivers or up to 5 km offshore in silence, cleanliness and comfort. It is equipped with electrical propulsion and modern solar panels to provide operating costs that are 40 times less than with a Diesel engine.
  • ElectraCraft ( - environmentally-friendly electric leisure boats
  • Nauticraft ( - Unique pedal and electric boats.
  • Hammacher Schlemmer ( - Solar-Powered Personal Boat
  • Ecocats ( - 40 pax electric ferry
  • Solemar ( - Passengers' ships and pleasure boats exclusively powered by solar energy.
  • American Marine Electric Motor Corp. ( - Announcing the first SELF-COOLING, permanent magnet, brushless DC motor, super efficient, all-electric outboard motor.

Electric Aircraft

  • Electric Propulsion System for Sport Aircraft ( - Sonex Aircraft ( and AeroConversions ( introduced their E-Flight Initiative, including a proof-of-concept prototype electric powerplant. The companies’s goal is to determine the feasibility of commercializing a line of electric aircraft products. Initial top speeds will reach 130 mph, with flight times of 25-45 minutes. (Green Car Congress; Jul. 26, 2007)
  • Superconductor electric airplanes ( - Scientists have unveiled research ( that would enable high-powered, ultra-reliable electromagnetic engines to be built for airplanes using lightweight superconductors and emission-free hydrogen fuel cells. These electric planes would be eco-friendly, exceptionally quiet, highly energy efficient and low maintenance. (Gizmag; Jun. 19, 2007)
Solar Flight ( - SUNSEEKER, a manned solar powered aircraft, has an electric motor, planetary gearbox, a folding propeller and 40 lbs of Lithium batteries installed in the wings. It was flown from Ramona to Tehachapi and back, over the Mojave Desert, San Gabriel mountains, Ontario, and Lake Elsinore. Flight time on the return was less than 3.5 hours.

Gasoline to Electric Conversion

  • DIY Electric Car Forums ( - EV Conversion Community - A new grassroots forum of do-it-yourself electric vehicle conversion enthusiasts.
  • Solar Van ( - Bedford Rascal van with a blown engine was converted to electric motor with Li-ion batteries. Rooftop solar PV panels provide 10% of the daily energy and a stowable wind turbine ( could make the vehicle energy independent on a sunny but windy day. Maximum speed is 50 mph and range is 75 miles.
  • Solar-electric Mowers & Tractors ( - A farmer has converted six farm tractors to run on rechargeable batteries and electric motors, rather than a gas or diesel engine. Some carry their own power source: a canopy of solar panels suspended over the machine. They generate less than a kilowatt, but for planting and harvesting, that’s enough to run the tractor. (Mother Earth News; Aug/Sep 2006)
  • ForkenSwift ( - Electric car conversion on a beer budget. A team of EV converters took an electric motor from a forklift and dropped it in a Geo Metro.
  • Build an EV ( - Why wait for Detroit when you can custom build an Electric Vehicle yourself.
  • Electric Avenue ( - The street-legal electric car of the future is coming--not from Japan or Detroit--but from your neighbor's garage. You must subscribe to read this article. Remove the engine from a donor car and replace it with batteries and a refurbished forklift motor to create your own electric car. If your daily driving range is under 40 miles and you have a second car for the highway, this could be for you. Conversions can be done for as little as $2000 with used parts.
  • ( - ‘Helping people get rid of Gas since 1995’
  • Electro Automotive ( - Electric Car Conversions Since 1979
  • Alternativ inc. ( - Canadian company converting gas vehicles to electric
  • DIY Advanced High Performance Electric Vehicle Conversion Project (
  • Conversion Kits ( at Cloud EV
  • Solar Assisted 2000 Chevrolet S-10 Electric Vehicle Conversion (
  • Electric Echo (
  • Left Coast Electric ( - We're converting current gasoline-powered cars to pure electric!
  • Wilderness Electric Vehicles ( - Home of the True electric vehicle conversion kits , and completed electric cars!
  • Jeep Cherokee converted to battery electric vehicle (
  • Electric Vehicle Conversions of Australia (
  • Electric Cars and Clean Air, What a Concept! - The 2nd Annual Commuter Conversion Electric Car Class for Teachers, (Instructors: Abran Quevedo and Mike Parker), was sponsored in part by the Electric Vehicle Association of San Diego. "It brought total strangers together from different parts of the country to learn the basics of how to do the conversion. Differences did not prevent our group from achieving a common goal - because we all agreed in principle to what we were doing. It was our belief in 'doing the right thing' that helped [us] to overcome the small bumps on our EV road trip," quipped the quirkily quixotic Mr. Q upon completion of the newsmaking EV conversion course. Learn how to Go Electric and Declare your Independence from failing fossil fuels today. The Electric Car is not dead! (FREE DVD Download)
  • Solar Charged Electric Lawnmower ( - Plans to convert ( an older non-working gas mower into an electric powered mower by replacing the gas engine with an electric motor that runs from a 12 volt battery that will be charged using a PV solar panel. It will be easier to use, there is no messy dangerous gasoline to deal with, and it eliminates the emissions of an internal combustion mower.

In the News

  • Electric Fiat Doblo conversion ( - Micro-Vett ( and Go Green Holding ( are testing an electrified Fiat Doblo powered by Altairnano's ( lithium titanate battery. During a single day it ran 186 miles and underwent three 10-minute recharges with Aerovironment's ( charging system. They plan to distribute 20 vehicles this year and another 250 vehicles in 2008. (AutoblogGreen; Oct. 12, 2007)
  • All-electric Jeep lookalike from France ( - The Tender Scarlette ( all-electric 4WD is currently available for sale in France, can run up to 80 km/h and has four motors, one for each wheel. The electricity is stored in the floor in 12 lead-acid batteries, enough to drive the car up to 100 km (60 miles). The cost of the car is between 10,000 and 15,000 EUR. (AutoblogGreen; Oct. 7, 2007)
  • Lithium-Powered Electric Car Now Available In U.K. ( - Elettrica is the first production electric car on the UK market with the option of a lithium power supply. The car is said to provide almost twice the range of other small electric cars at 70 miles. It is available from Future Vehicles (, has an aluminium safety cage, disc brakes, front and rear impact bars and has undergone front and side crash-testing. (MetaEfficient)
  • Fiat Palio EVs to be tested in Brazil ( - Brazilian electric utility Companhia Energetica de Minas Gerais (Cemig) is teaming up with Fiat to build a test fleet of battery-powered Fiat Palios. They will be building thirty of the cars powered by batteries from Swiss manufacturer KWO to start with at a price of $36,000. (AutoblogGreen; Aug. 16, 2007)
  • Th!nk could be back in the US as soon as 2008 ( - Th!nk ( will begin production this fall at a plant in Norway and sales will begin in Scandinavia followed by England, Switzerland, the Netherlands and the US. If demand warrants, the former Ford-owned company is looking to expand production to other countries, possibly the UK, US or others. (AutoblogGreen; Jul. 24, 2007)
  • Superconductor electric airplanes ( - Scientists have unveiled research ( that would enable high-powered, ultra-reliable electromagnetic engines to be built for airplanes using lightweight superconductors and emission-free hydrogen fuel cells. These electric planes would be eco-friendly, exceptionally quiet, highly energy efficient and low maintenance. (Gizmag; Jun. 19, 2007)
  • Symphony Motors Moves Closer to Electric Car Launch ( - Symphony Motors ( will manufacture battery powered electric vehicles that will be mid-sized, safe, and capable of speeds well in excess of any posted limit. Their range will be from 75 miles to over 200 miles on a single charge. The ‘fuel’ for a battery electric car is roughly the equivalent to 35 cents per gallon of gasoline. (EVWorld; Jun. 12, 2007)
  • Hybrid Technologies EV video ( - Hybrid Technologies is offering the six-minute segment ( on the company's electric vehicles from the History Channel Modern Marvels "It came from Space" episode. It gives a quick history about lithium battery development at NASA and includes a view into the company's conversion process and some of their high speed long range electric vehicles. (AutoblogGreen; May 25, 2007)
  • Comet EV coming from China ( - Comet ( is a new three-wheeled all-electric 3-passenger city vehicle from Flybo-EV (, made of carbon fiber and Kevlar, with 'alloy' wheels also made of carbon fiber. It has a top speed of 90 mph and a potential 200-mile range (depending on battery pack), and a possible price tag of $30,000. (AutoblogGreen; May 11, 2006)
  • Miles Javlon XS500 all-electric sedan ( - Miles Automotive ( rolled-out their all-electric, five-seat sedan with an 85 mph top speed and a 150+ mile range, that starts at $29,500. It has a 320 V, 25 kWh, 80 Ah lithium-ion battery that takes six hours to charge, and will become available for sale by the end of 2008. (AutoblogGreen; Apr. 3, 2007)
  • Cleanova testing Fiat Doblo EV ( - Cleanova ( is turning a Fiat Doblo ( into an electric vehicle with a 120 km/h speed and 150 kms range, by combining a TM4 electric motor with lithium-ion batteries. The Cleanova system has already been tested on the Renault Kangoo ( and adds about $10,000 to the cost of a vehicle. The FIAT Doblo Electricis ( otherwise already available from Micro-Vett ( and distributed in Europe by NEWTEON ecofriendly vehicles ( (AutoblogGreen; Mar. 21, 2007)
  • Aptera's Prototype Unveiled ( - Aptera Motors ( last week unveiled a working prototype of their diesel-electric hybrid car that will get 230 mpg at 55 mph. An all electric version will be available with a 150 mile range using NiZn batteries. Estimated price is $20,000. (TreeHugger; Mar. 15, 2007)
  • Electric Vans for French Post Office ( - France's postal service used eight experimental electric-powered mail-delivery vans ( to meet a government requirement to reduce pollution. They worked so well and proved so cheap to operate that La Poste is planning to replace its 48,000-vehicle fleet with electric cars developed by Société de Véhicules Électriques ( (The Energy Blog; Mar. 04, 2007)
  • The VentureOne Hybrid and EV: 100 MPH, 100 MPG ( - The VentureOne ( three-wheeler will be available as a hybrid with 300 mile range or as an all electric vehicle with 120 mile range. It seats two and is capable of 100 mph with 100 mpg fuel efficiency and can tilt almost 45º in turns. To be released in late 2008, priced in the $20,000 range. (TreeHugger; Feb. 16, 2007)
  • Production of Norwegian Think electric car to be resumed ( - Around 500 el-powered vehicles will be produced at the Aurskog factory in 2007. Next year the production will be doubled. The new "Think" model will have improved batteries with a range of 180 km between charges and a top speed of around 100 km. (The Norway Post; Feb. 1, 2007)
  • Mullen Motor L1X-75 GT electric sports car available soon ( - The all-electric, 120 mph L1X-75 GT from Mullen Motor Company ( and Hybrid Technologies ( will be available in about eight weeks. Compared to the Tesla Roadster, the L1X-75 GT costs more ($125,000 vs. $92,000-100,000), has less range (100 miles vs. 250) but it has one thing the Roadster doesn't have: availability. (AutoblogGreen; January 30, 2007)
  • ZAP and Lotus to Use APX for High-Performance Electric ZAP-X ( - ZAP and Lotus Engineering are beginning ( a project to use the APX for a production-ready electric crossover vehicle in the US market. Aluminum architecture, a new efficient drive and advanced battery management should enable a range up to 350 miles, with a rapid 10-minute recharging time. An auxiliary power unit is planned to support longer distance journeys. (Green Car Congress; January 30, 2007)
  • MotivNation will introduce 'light electric vehicles' ( - MotivNation (, a company based in Orange County, California, will introduce ( a light electric vehicle through its Damon's ( division. MotivNation CEO George Lefevre says the product will feature an innovative motor, controller, battery and manufacturing techniques. Damon's is best known for its painting and graphics on cars and motorcycles. (AutoblogGreen; January 29, 2007)
  • High Speed Electric Car Promised ( - At the National Auto Dealers Association convention in February, Miles Automotive ( expects to unveil its latest Chinese electric car, the "high speed" XS500 ( A lithium-ion battery pack will enable a speed up to 80 miles per hour and a range of 150 miles. It will go on sale in late 2008, priced from around $30,000. (Inside Line; January 17, 2007)
  • Nova Technologies Pursuing Self-Charging Vehicle Technology ( - Institute claims to be developing a "self-recharging electric vehicle, capable of converting ambient energy sources into usable electrical power efficiently enough to power a 1,500 pound vehicle at highway speeds for unlimited distances without the combustion of any kind of fuel or emission of any exhaust." (PESN; Dec. 30, 2006)
  • Marin residents make their own electric vehicles ( - Scavenging electric forklift motors and trading circuit-board secrets in Internet discussion groups, the E-tinkerers are hot-rodding electric vehicles behind anonymous suburban garage doors. "People who are interested in electric vehicles have had to go the do-it-yourself way for many years now," Ron Gremban says. (Marin Independent Journal; December 26, 2006)
  • Gas, Electric and Hybrid Go Head to Head in LCA ( - A short review ( of an Life Cycle Analysis compares the CO2 emissions from the manufacture and use phases of petroleum, electric and hybrid cars. The petroleum car uses less CO2 during manufacture, but the electric and hybrid cars comes out on top when used for transportation. (TreeHugger; December 23, 2006)
  • Think to sell electric car over internet ( - A new version of the TH!NK (, formerly owned by Ford, will be introduced in London this autumn, likely to be sold over the internet from a single site. The two-seater cars are made from a tough thermoplastic and the standard kit includes ABS, power steering and electric windows and manages 80 miles on full batteries. (motortorque; December 19, 2006)
  • PHEVs Have Little Impact on Electric Power System ( - A new study for the Department of Energy finds that idle capacity in the existing electric power system could generate most of the electricity consumed by plug-in hybrid electric vehicles. The study presumes that drivers would charge up overnight when demand for electricity is much lower and that the cars would be driven 33 miles per day, the national average. (The Energy Blog; December 11, 2006)
  • Why We Need Electric Cars ( - Electric Vehicles have overwhelming advantages over gasoline vehicles in fuel cost, emissions and energy independence. Solar recharged electric vehicles are 50 to 3,000 times more efficient than burning biofuels, based on sun to wheel energy conversion rates. (Mother Earth News; October/November 2006)
  • Currie to build LEVs using Fallbrook’s NuVinci™ CVP ( - Currie Technologies will expand its IZIP™ ( product line to include hybrid electric bicycles and electric scooters combining the Currie Electro-Drive™ with the NuVinci CVP ( continuously variable planetary transmission ( . As a result, a new vehicle category will be created – a family of light electric vehicles whose enhanced performance makes them a practical alternative to gas-powered vehicles. (Fallbrook Technologies; September 12, 2006)
  • Smart Shows Zero-Emissions Vehicle ( - Smart has unveiled an electric version of its Fortwo city car, which will be supplied to corporate customers in the UK. Power is provided by a liquid sodium nickel-chloride battery. It provides a range of up to 72 miles when fully charged. The top speed of the car has been limited to 70 mph. (Inside Line; July 20, 2006)
  • OBVIO! to Introduce Electric Cars to North America ( - Brazilian automotive company OBVIO! ( will develop and introduce lithium-ion-powered electric cars based on its 828 and 012 microsport car designs for export to North America. OBVIO! has a strategic partnership with California automobile distributor ZAP (, which has agreed to be the exclusive North American distributor and has pre-purchased 50,000 OBVIO! units. (Green Car Congress; July 20, 2006)
  • Altair Nanotechnologies Receives Initial Order For Electric Car Batteries ( - Altair ( today announced that it has received an order for its fast charge, high powered nano-lithium ion batteries from Phoenix Motorcars (, an early leader in the effort to mass produce full function, freeway ready electric automobiles. (Altair Nanotechnologies; July 05, 2006)
  • Canadian firm will sell electric car in U.S. ( - Feel Good Cars of Toronto has signed 20 U.S. dealers in Florida, Arizona and California to start selling a tiny $10,000 electric car. The Zenn -- short for zero emissions, no noise -- is a French-built two-seat hatchback that can go about 35 miles on a single charge of its lead-acid batteries and is limited to a top speed of 25 mph. The front-wheel-drive Zenn will be used mostly by drivers running errands who want to be in a carlike vehicle that is weatherproof. (Autoweek; June 26, 2006)
  • Hybrid Technologies Developing All-Electric Taxi for NYC ( - Hybrid Technologies, a manufacturer of lithium-ion-powered aftermarket conversions, plans to build a taxi version of its battery-powered PT Cruiser, pursuant to negotiations with the New York City Taxi and Limousine Commission (TLC). The Taxi Commission will vote on this project at a scheduled commission meeting. (Green Car Congress; May 10, 2006)
  • Electric Q-Car from Takara Co. ( - Takara zooms from the world of toys to that of personal transport. With look-at-me styling, a range of 80km on fully charged batteries, and a turning radius of just 2.5m, the cars are tailored to the young city dweller on the move. Top speed is 50km/hr and the batteries can be charged in 8 hours using any 100V electric outlet. (


Recharging Stations

  • EV Charger News ( listings for EV charging stations in California, Arizona, and Georgia, along with some listings for other states.
  • Clean Car Maps ( - Alternative vehicle fueling maps, including inductive and conductive electric.
  • Electric Vehicle Charging Lists ( from
  • AeroVironment ( - Fast charge system that charges both high voltage and low voltage electric vehicles simultaneously.
  • AccelRate ( - Decreasing charging time while maximizing battery life, AccelRate technology can be used with lead-acid, NiMh, NiCd, and lithium batteries, powering equipment from cell phones to electric vehicles. AccelRate’s charger technology utilizes a charge/discharge algorithm that enables a full state-of-charge in 80% less time than conventional technology, and will extend battery life to its original capacity because of heat reduction during charging.
  • Quick Charge! ( - The Hawaii Center for Advanced Transportation Technologies (HCATT) has been field testing AeroVironment PosiCharge ( rapid chargers for a fleet of Hyundai Santa Fe battery electric vehicles. The NiMH batteries took about 30 minutes to charge, longer than the 10-15 minute rapid charge available at full power, which lead-acid battery EVs often take advantage of. (Yahoo! Autos)
  • V2Green ( - establishes two-way communication between plug-in vehicles and the grid, and provides the means to intelligently manage electric power resources, helping to reduce petroleum use and greenhouse gas emissions.


  • Batteries > Will EEStor ceramic battery replace gas engines by 2008? - Texas company is working on an "energy storage" device made from ceramics. It's not technically a battery because it doesn't use chemicals. It can allegedly charge within 5 minutes with enough energy to move a car 500 miles on about $9 worth of electricity -- about 45 cents a gallon.
  • Batteries > Altair Nanotechnologies ( - The NanoSafe battery with a nano-titanate negative electrode is high powered yet safe from fire or explosion hazards seen in lithium-ion batteries. Tests confirm ( that after 15,000 deep charge/discharge cycles the cells still retained over 85% of their original charge capacity, allowing 40 years of daily charging for electric vehicles.
  • Batteries > Vanadium Redox Batteries - Low cost deep cycling battery can be mechanically refuelled in minutes with liquid electrolyte. This raises the opportunity for the establishment of refuelling stations so that electric vehicles could exchange their electrolyte and then continue on their way with no more delay than if refuelling with petrol or diesel.
  • Batteries > Advanced Battery Technologies ( - ABAT’s Polymer Lithium-Ion (PLI) batteries for electric vehicles ( offer a high energy density with quick charge, long usage time, 199 mile range and are non-polluting. There are no liquid electrolytes or leakage problems, they are chemically stable, have no “memory problem”, and are full function at temperatures as low as -20 C.
  • Batteries > Li-S > Sion Power - Lithium Sulfer batteries have the potential to be an enabling technology for both Plug In Hyrid and Pure Electric Vehicles. With over 350 Wh/Kg today, Li-S can achieve a driving range of 300 miles and improves the overall payload capability. As sulfur is much less expensive than other battery components, the material cost is lower than lithium-ion or lithium-polymer batteries.
  • Batteries > New long range EV battery ( - Device Conduit Technologies ( says its DCT RackPack™ Massively Intermoduled Battery (MIB) pack can finally deliver 100 to 300 mile range to electric and hybrid vehicles at affordable prices. Their solution combines off the shelf systems in a novel manner combined with a new technology. (Inside Greentech; Jul. 20, 2007)
Fuel Cells > Powerzinc Electric ( - Dynamic Quick-refuel Fuel Cells (DQFC) are high power, high energy, long-lasting, low cost and environment-friendly zinc-air fuel cells for electric vehicles. The company is developing an all-Electric passenger car with a range of 400 km and a fast refuel service platform.

Rooftop Solar Panels

  • Solar-Shell™ ( - electric bike PV charging station and bike locker.

Electric Motors

See also Directory:Electromagnetic

  • Electromagnetic > UQM Technologies ( - Permanent magnet electric motor system achieves a 10 to 1 constant power speed ratio (CPSR), providing both high torque and high speed capability in the same machine at levels greater than that of other motor technology. Peak power is increased by 33 percent and continuous power output by nearly 100 percent, and system efficiency from 2 to 8 percent. Suitable for electric vehicles and distributed power generation.
  • Electromagnetic > Raser Technologies ( - Symetron™ AC induction motor technology achieves high torque without permanent magnets. A few simple changes to conventional motors yield significant increases in power, performance and efficiency. With up to 3 times the power density, a lower cost per kilowatt, Symetron™ is ideal for use in electric & hybrid vehicles, industrial applications and power generation.
  • Electromagnetic > Trinity Motors ( - Multiple Field™ motor technology with high performance armature configuration achieves 30% improvement in energy efficiency, while magnetic suspension greatly reduces bearing friction. PowerMax™ motor/generator features chargeback capabilities that can recharge batteries while the motor is running. Suitable for electric cars (, heating and cooling motors, power generation.
  • Electromagnetic > Variable Torque Motors ( - Axial field weakening yields higher efficiency over the rpm range, creating a "built-in" transmission that mechanically enables an operating range up to 10x the motor base speed for electric vehicles. VTM offers hybrid retrofit packages installed on the drive shaft of rear wheel drive vehicles using Maxwell BoostCap™ ( ultracapacitors for energy storage.
  • Electromagnetic > WaveCrest Laboratories ( - WaveCrest motors enhance dynamic performance and control of vehicles by providing high levels of both positive and negative torque at the wheel. They independently power the wheels on one or more of a vehicle’s axles, and occupy less interior space. The low-speed torque and fast response time replaces costly systems such as anti-lock braking and traction control. Regenerative braking reduces brake wear and extends electric range.
  • Electromagnetic > Ultra Motor Company ( - Permanent magnet DC Hub motors ( have only five major components, are simple in design, easy to manufacture and suited for narrow, wheel-mounted motor applications such as electric bikes and scooters. Ultra motors offer significant space-saving while delivering higher torque and efficiency - without the need for gears, belts or chains.
  • Electromagnetic > Bodine Electric ( - Extremely high torque, energy efficiency, and extraordinary precision make e-TORQ motors the practical direct drive solution in applications which traditionally required a speed reducer. North Dakota State University used one of these motors ( to finish first in a field of 30 teams in the American Solar Challenge in July of 2003.
  • New Generation Motors ( - High efficiency compact traction motors and controllers for electric vehicle applications. The motor design provides the ultra high efficiency and power density advantages of permanent magnet motors and the reduced power electronics of AC induction designs.
  • NetGain Technologies ( - Our motors are produced by Warfield Electric, the largest rebuilder of series wound DC motors in the US. Since they already knew what the failure points were from their experience repairing "all the other motors" -- it was a simple matter for them to help us design motors that were intended for the unusual stresses encountered in electric vehicles.

Fuel Cost Comparison

In the May 2006 issue, Popular Mechanics magazine ( calculates the cost to travel from New York to California on various alternative fuels:

  1. $. 60 Electricity (EV)
  2. $110 Compressed Natural Gas (CNG)
  3. $183 B20 Biodiesel (20% Biodiesel 80% Petrodiesel)
  4. $212 Gasoline
  5. $231 B100 Biodiesel (100% Biodiesel)
  6. $425 E85 (85% Ethanol 15% Gasoline)
  7. $619 M85 (85% Methanol 15% Gasoline)
  8. $804 Hydrogen Fuel Cell
  • Vancouver Electric Vehicle Association ( - GREET Fuel Economy Ratios of Vehicle Technologies (Relative to Gasoline Vehicles) - Note that a BP EV (battery-powered electric vehicle) is all by itself at 3.5 times the fuel economy.


  • BEV - Battery Electric Vehicle ( - electric vehicles whose main energy storage is in the chemical energy of batteries.
  • EV - Electric Vehicle ( - a vehicle propelled by electric motors.
  • EVC - Electric Vehicle Conversion ( - the modification of a conventional internal combustion engine (ICE) driven vehicle to battery electric propulsion.
  • Golf Car ( - a small vehicle designed originally to carry two golfers and their golf clubs around a golf course.
  • HEV - Hybrid Electric Vehicle ( - uses multiple propulsion systems to provide motive power. This most commonly refers to gasoline-electric hybrid vehicles.
  • LEV - Light Electric Vehicle (
  • LSV - Low Speed Vehicle ( - operates under the same restrictions as a Neighborhood Electric Vehicle (NEV) but without the specification of battery electric power.
  • NEV - Neighborhood Electric Vehicle ( - a speed limited battery electric vehicle (usually 25 miles per hour in the U.S.A.) restricted by law to operation on roads with speed limits not exceeding 35 MPH.
  • PEV - Personal Electric Vehicle ( - a one-person electric car.
  • PEV - Production Electric Vehicle ( - Battery electric vehicles which have been produced for the consumer market.
  • PHEV Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle ( - a hybrid which has additional battery capacity and the ability to be recharged from an external electrical outlet.
  • ZEV - Zero Emissions Vehicle ( - will produce no emissions or pollution from the vehicle when stationary or operating.

Legal Background

  • Montana Enacts Law Enabling Medium-Speed Electric Vehicles ( - Montana has signed into law a bill that allows neighborhood electric vehicles equipped with the proper safety features to travel up to 35 mph on city and county roads. NEVs previously were in the same category as golf carts, and were prohibited from travelling faster than 25 mph. The state of Washington ( has passed a similar bill, but it has not yet been signed into law. (Green Car Congress; Apr. 24, 2007)


  • The Electric Car ( provides a comprehensive picture of the history, current status, and likely future development of electric cars.
  • Build Your Own Electric Vehicle ( by Bob Brant
  • Convert It! ( - A step by step manual for converting an internal combustion vehicle to electric power


Vanadium Redox Batteries

From PESWiki

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Vanadium batteries
Vanadium batteries

Vanadium redox batteries are low cost, low environmental impact batteries that have a superior deep cycling life and can be mechanically refueled in minutes. Suitable for green energy storage, backup power, electric vehicles and utility load leveling / peak shaving.


vanadium battery info... ( - The vanadium redox flow battery was developed by Professor Maria Skylass-Kazacos and her team at the University of New South Wales, Australia. It is a low cost, low environmental impact battery that has a superior deep cycling life and can be mechanically refuelled in minutes.

The vanadium redox battery stores energy in a liquid electrolyte solution of vanadium pentoxide dissolved in sulphuric acid. The electrolyte can be charged or discharged by pumping it through the battery stack and either supplying electric power to the stack or taking power from the stack. It can also be recharged by having the spent electrolyte pumped out and a fresh charge of electrolyte pumped in.

The spent electrolyte can then be recharged in another battery with electricity from the mains or from renewable energy sources. This raises the opportunity for the establishment of refuelling stations so that electric vehicles could exchange their electrolyte and then continue on their way with no more delay than if refuelling with petrol or diesel.


  • VFuel Pty ( - Australia - V-Fuel has successfully secured an exclusive world-wide license for generation 2 vanadium redox technology from the University of NSW commercial arm, Unisearch Pty Ltd.
  • Cellenium ( - Thailand - A novel vanadium redox flow battery architecture which is more efficient, more stable, and safer than other vanadium battery designs.
  • RE-Fuel ( - U.K. - RE-Fuel powered vehicles offer the major benefits of zero emissions at point of use with virtually silent operation. The life of the battery is not affected by the state of discharge as is the case with conventional lead-acid; The performance of the battery is not affected by temperatures within the range of 0 – 45 oC.
  • VRB Power Systems ( - Canada - The VRB Energy Storage System (VRB-ESS) can economically store and supply large amounts of electricity on demand and is focused on stationary applications. It is a long life, cost effective, low maintenance, efficient technology that allows for the scalability of power and storage capacity independently.
  • Pinnacle VRB ( - Australia - The Vanadium Redox Battery (VRB) is an electrochemical energy storage device, whereby energy (electricity) can be stored indefinitely in a liquid and can be recovered instantaneously. It’s a very big battery…with the capacity to store and deliver power on a commercial scale for electricity networks.


Info Sites

  • Vanadium battery info ( - Liquid electricity pumped as the fuel of the future. The technology may eventually allow electric cars to be refueled at future versions of today's petrol stations, doing away with the need to routinely replace bulky batteries or spend hours recharging them from power mains. The new battery stores power in tanks of vanadium sulphate dissolved in sulphuric acid. Found in Western Australia, vanadium is a metal used to make stainless steel. Dr. Jacques explained that when a vanadium battery runs down, the owner merely has to drain the discharged liquid and refill the tank.

In the News

  • VRB Power for Wind Farm Energy Storage ( - VRB Power Systems ( announced that the Vanadium Redox Battery Energy Storage System (VRB-ESS™) for the Sorne Hill Wind Farm in Ireland will have 2MW of power with 6 hours of storage and 3MW of pulse power for 10 minute periods to deal with short term volatility in wind generation. (The Energy Blog; Mar. 28, 2007)
  • Solar family car a long way off ( - Even in ideal conditions for solar retention (summer with no cloud cover) you’d need 90 square metres of solar panels just to power a small car. The idea of a car run by an easily replaced battery however remains appealing. The vanadium redox battery is one technology that may yet ensure that battery stations as opposed to petrol stations become a regularly frequented stop-off point for the average vehicle user. Unlike in conventional batteries, the vanadium redox stores energy in the solutions so that the capacity of the system is determined by the size of the electrolyte tanks. This means it is rechargeable and has the capacity to harness enormous power. (nowUC; May 27, 2006)
  • The Vanadium Battery: The Ultimate Energy Storage Solution ( - A new mass energy storage technology is on the cusp of entering mainstream society. The Japanese are currently using it on a grand scale, the Canadians have comprehensively evaluated it and soon Australians will have the opportunity to replace their old lead-acid batteries with a Vanadium Redox Battery alternative. There are no emissions, no disposal issues, no loss of charge, the construction materials are 'green' and the battery can be charged and discharged simultaneously. (Treehugger; April 1, 2005)
  • Vanadium Redox Flow Batteries ( - The VRB has an availability of greater than 98%. It is designed for unattended operation with very low maintenance costs. No degradation from repeated deep charges and discharges. The system can be discharged and charged greater than 13,000 times. The VRB-ESS has a charge/discharge window of 1:1 - allowing off-peak charging for on-peak dispatch - a fraction of the time required by other battery systems and ideal for wind generation applications. This technology is one of the only socially responsible energy storage options in existence. (The Energy Blog; January 21, 2006)
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posted by u2r2h at Sunday, October 21, 2007


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