What's Liquidator in Japanese???
Vereffenaars in dutch, Liquidateurs in french, Liquidatoren in Deutsch, ликвида́торы in Russian!!
Liquidators is the name given in the former USSR to approximately 800,000 people who were in charge of the removal of the consequences of the April 26, 1986 Chernobyl disaster on the site of the event.
The unit sievert specifically measures absorbed radiation which is absorbed by a person
1 milli Sievert = 100 milli rem.
Average individual background radiation dose: 2 milli Sv/year
Chest CT scan: 6–18 mSv (for 20 minutes)
Criterion for relocation after Chernobyl disaster: 350 mSv/lifetime
10 Sv and you are dead.
New York-Tokyo flights for airline crew: 9 milliSv/year
(at 11km height I measured 3 micro Sv with my geiger counter, let say NY-Tokyo is 10 hours flight, then 3m Sv per year means that they fly 100days at 10 hours)
Smoking 1.5 packs/day: 13-60 mSv/year
The tobacco leaf acts like the absorbing surface of charcoal in a radon test kit. It collects long-lived isotopes of airborne radon, like lead-210 and polonium.
If you sleep next to another person for 8 hours every night you will receive 0.002 mSv
Exposure comes from the naturally radioactive potassium in the other person's body
radioactivity exposure map europe -
o Yuri Korneev, Boris Stolyarchuk and Alexander Yuvchenko are the last surviving members of the Reactor No. 4 shift that was on duty at the moment of the catastrophe. Anatoly Dyatlov, who was in charge of the safety experiment at Reactor No. 4, died in 1995 of a heart attack.
* The approximately 40 firefighters who were among the first to deal with the catastrophe
* A 300-person brigade of Civil Defense from Kiev who buried the contaminated soil
* Medical personnel
* Various workers and military who performed deactivation and clean-up of the area
* Construction workers who constructed the sarcophagus over the exploded reactor No. 4
* Internal Troops who ensured secure access to the complex
* Transport workers
* A team of coal miners, who used their expertise to pump out the contaminated water to prevent its entrance into groundwater
* Nikolai Melnik, Hero of the Soviet Union, a helicopter pilot who placed radiation sensors on the reactor
Between 1986 and 1992, it is thought between 600,000 and one million people participated in works around Chernobyl and their health was endangered due to radiation. Because of the dissolution of the USSR in the 1990s, evaluations about liquidators' health are difficult, since they come from various countries (mostly Ukraine, Belarus and Russia, but also other former Soviet republics). Furthermore, the government of Russia has never been keen on giving the true figures for the disaster, or even on making serious estimates. However, according to a study by Belarusian physicians, rate of cancers among this population is about four times greater than the rest of the population. All the figures quoted by various agencies are controversial — see the main article, Chernobyl disaster for more on this.
* In April 1994, a commemoration text from the Ukrainian embassy in Belgium counted 25,000 dead among the liquidators since 1986.
* According to Georgy Lepnin, a Belarusian physician who worked on reactor #4, "approximately 100,000 liquidators are now dead", of a total number of one million workers.
* According to Vyacheslav Grishin of the Chernobyl Union, the main organization of liquidators, "25,000 of the Russian liquidators are dead and 70,000 disabled, about the same in Ukraine, and 10,000 dead in Belarus and 25,000 disabled", which makes a total of 60,000 dead (10% of the 600 000, liquidators) and 165,000 disabled.
The 20th anniversary of the catastrophe was marked by a series of events and developments.
The liquidators held a rally in Kiev to complain about deteriorated compensation and medical support. Similar rallies were held in many other cities of the former Soviet Union.
On April 25, 2006, a monument to Hero of the Soviet Union Leonid Telyatnikov, who was among the very first liquidators, was inaugurated in the Baikove Cemetery in Kiev.
On the occasion of the 20th anniversary the charity Children of Chernobyl delivered their 32nd delivery of $1.7 million worth of medical supplies to Kiev.
4,200 liquidators who currently reside in Estonia may hope for the introduction of an Estonian law for their relief after the meeting of their representatives with President of Estonia on April 26, 2006. It turns out that by the Estonian laws, the state may provide help and relief only to citizens, who are "legal descendants" of the citizens of 1918–1940 Republic of Estonia. At the same time, Russia, Belarus and Ukraine do not provide any relief to the liquidators residing abroad.
A number of liquidators residing in Khabarovsk who were in military service were denied a certain compensation for loss of health on grounds that they were not salaried workers, but rather under military order. They have to appeal to the European Court of Human Rights.
from right to left - reactor 1 2 3 4 .. nr 1 is a little forward,
the plutonium reactor Nr 3 has a smoke cloud, number 2 still has the roof.
The Fukushima I nuclear accidents Fukushima Dai-ichi genshiryoku hatsudensho jiko are a series of ongoing equipment failures and releases of radioactive materials at the Fukushima I Nuclear Power Plant, following the 2011 To-hoku earthquake and tsunami at 14:46 JST on 11 March 2011. The plant comprises six separate boiling water reactors maintained by the Tokyo Electric Power Company (TEPCO). Reactors 4, 5 and 6 had been shut down prior to the earthquake for planned maintenance. The remaining reactors were shut down automatically after the earthquake, but the subsequent 14 metres (46 ft) tsunami flooded the plant, knocking out emergency generators needed to run pumps which cool and control the reactors. The flooding and earthquake damage prevented assistance being brought from elsewhere.
Evidence arose of partial core meltdown in reactors 1, 2, and 3; hydrogen explosions destroyed the upper cladding of the buildings housing reactors 1, 3, and 4; an explosion damaged the containment inside reactor 2; and multiple fires broke out at reactor 4. In addition, spent fuel rods stored in spent fuel pools of units 1-4 began to overheat as water levels in the pools dropped. Fears of radiation leaks led to a 20 kilometres (12 mi) radius evacuation around the plant. Workers at the plant suffered radiation exposure and were temporarily evacuated at various times. On 18 March, Japanese officials designated the magnitude of the danger at reactors 1, 2 and 3 at level 5 on the 7 point International Nuclear Event Scale (INES). Power was restored to parts of the plant from 20 March, but machinery damaged by floods, fires and explosions remained inoperable.
On 25 March, Japan's nuclear regulator announced a likely breach and radiation leak in the containment vessel of the unit 3 reactor, the only one at the plant using MOX fuel. World wide measurements of radioactive fallout released from the reactors were reported by New Scientist to be "nearing Chernobyl levels". It reported that the preparatory commission of the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty Organization had measured levels of iodine-131 at 73% and caesium-137 at 60% the levels released from the Chernobyl disaster. Food grown in the area was banned. Tokyo officials declared its tap water unsafe for infants for a short time. Plutonium (Pu) has been detected in the soil at two sites in the plant. None the less, the overall levels of Pu were about the same as background Pu levels resulting from atmospheric nuclear bomb testing in the past.
The IAEA announced on 27 March that workers hospitalized as a precaution on 25 March had been exposed to between 2 and 6 Sv of radiation at their ankles when standing in water in unit 3. The international reaction to the accidents was also concerned. The Japanese government and TEPCO have been criticized for poor communication with the public. On 20 March, the Chief Cabinet Secretary Yukio Edano announced that the plant would be closed once the crisis was over